About Levan: References
Levan has long fascinated researchers as shown by numerous papers describing successful laboratory studies. Until now, those ideas have been largely unrealized, at least partly because the polymer was so expensive in gram quantities. Our research has made possible large scale production and availability at a reasonable price.
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Bekers M, Upite D, Kaminska E, Laukevics J, Grube M, Vigants A, Linde R. Stability of levan produced by Zymomonas mobilis. Process Biochemistry 40: 1535-1539 (2005).
Bodie E, Schwartz R, Catena A. Production and characterization of a polymer from Arthrobacter sp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 50: 629-633 (1985).
Fuchs A. On the synthesis and breakdown of levan by bacteria. Thesis. (1959).
Hendry G. Evolutionary origins and natural functions of fructans - a climatological, biogeographic and mechanistic appraisal. In The Biology of Fructans, ed by J F Farrar and C J Pollock, Cambridge University Press, pp 1-14 (1992).
Ingelman B, Siegbahn K. Dextran and levan molecules studied with the electron microscope. Nature 3903: 237-238 (1944).
Karsakevich V, Gonta A, Linde R, Bekers M. Influence of some physiochemical factors on the viscosity of aqueous levan solutions of Zymomonas mobilis. Acta Biotechnology 18: 167-174 (1998).
Kasapis S, Morris E. Conformation and physical properties of two unusual microbial polysaccharides: Rhizobium trifolii CPS and Levan. In Food Hydrocolloids: Structures, Properties and Functions, ed by K. Nishinari, Plenum Press, New York, pp 97-103 (1994).
Kasapis S, Morris E, Gross M, Rudolph K. Solution properties of levan polysaccharide from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, and its possible primary role as a blocker of recognition during pathogenesis. Carbohydrate Polymers 23: 55-64 (1994).
Keith J, Wiley B, Ball D, Arcidiacono S, Zorfass D, Mayer J, Kaplan D. Continuous culture system for production of biopolymer levan using Erwinia herbicola. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 38: 557-560 (1991).
Khorramian B, Stivala S. Assessment of branching hydrolysates of S. salivarius levan and L. mesenteroides dextran from small-angle X-ray scattering. Carbohydrate Research 108: 1-11 (1982).
Kirk-Othmer. Microbial polysaccharides. In Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Vol 16, 4th ed., pp 591-593 (1991).
Kojima I, Saito T, Iizuka M, Minamiura N, Ono S. Characterization of levan produced by Serratia sp. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 75: 9-12 (1993).
Mays T, Dally E. Microbial production of polyfructose. US Patent 4,879,228 (1989).
Monsan P, Bozonnet S, Albenne C, Joucla G, Willemot R-M, Remaud-Simeon M. Homopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. International Dairy Journal 11: 675-685 (2001).
Murphy D. Structure of a levan produced by Bacillus polymyxa. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 30: 872-878 (1952).
Newbrun E, Lacy R, Christie T. The morphology and size of the extracellular polysaccharide from oral streptococci. Archives of Oral Biology 16: 863-872 (1971).
Simms P, Boyko W, Edwards J. The structural analysis of a levan produced by Streptococcus salivarius SS2. Carbohydrate Research 208: 193-198 (1990).
Stivala S, Bahary W, Long L, Ehrlich J. Levans. II. Light-scattering and sedimentation data of Streptococcus salivarius levan in water. Biopolymers 14: 1283-1292 (1975).
Stivala S, Bahary W. Some dilute-solution parameters of the levan of Streptococcus salivarius in various solvents. Carbohydrate Research 67: 17-21 (1978).
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Vereyken I, van Kuik J, Evers T, Rijken P, de Kruijff B. Structural requirements of the fructan-lipid interaction. Biophysical Journal 84: 3147-3154 (2003).
Vereyken I, Chupin V, Islamov A, Kuklin A, Hincha D, de Kruijff B. The effect of fructan on the phospholipid organization in the dry state. Biophysical Journal 85: 3058-3065 (2003).
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