More Possible Uses:
IMMUNOLOGY: Numerous studies have attempted to unravel the immunological properties of levan. It was found that levan could delay the rejection of skin grafts (Leibovici) and reduce the number of macrophages attaching to subcutaneously implanted foreign bodies (Papadimitriou). Willoughby's group found that levan affected the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions (Sedgewick). In actively sensitized animals, levan markedly reduced the incidence and severity of allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs (Berman). More than 25 years later papers are still reporting on this complex issue (Xu).
Berman Z, Leibovici J, Wolman M. Effect of levan on the stages of development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 12: 1294-1297 (1976).
Gaffar A, Kestenbaum R. Vaccines for the prevention of dental caries. US Patent 3,879,545 (1975).
Leibovici J, Bleiberg I, Wolman M. Effect of native levan on homograft rejection in mice. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 149: 348-350 (1975).
Papadimitriou J, Robertson T, Wolman M, Walters M. The tissue reaction to implanted foreign bodies in levan-treated mice. Pathology 10: 235-241 (1978).
Sedgewick A, Rutman A, Sin Y, Mackay A, Willoughby D. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 65: 215-222 (1984).
Xu Q, Yajima T, Li W, Saito K, Ohshima Y, Yoshikai Y. Levan (β-2,6-fructan), a major fraction of fermented soybean mucilage, displays immunostimulating properties via Toll-like receptor 4 signalling: induction of interleukin-12 production and suppression of T-helper type 2 response and immunoglobulin E production. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 36: 94-101 (2006).